Stimulating Students’ Higher-Order Thinking Skills on Heat and Temperature Concepts

Indah Slamet Budiarti, Suparmi Suparmi, Sarwanto Sarwanto, Harjana Harjana, Viyanti Viyanti


The innovative way to improve the quality of human resources are elevated through education as one of basic foundation of human life. Education is a booster to form ideas, express thoughts, share feelings, and live a life as an individual. Education is also a significant factor that can change society and give new color to the community. This study aims to describe the process of stimulating students’ higher-order thinking skills on heat and temperature concepts. This research uses a descriptive method. Population in this study were high school students in Class XI in the city of Jayapura. The sampling technique in this study was purposive sampling so that a sample of 50 students was obtained. Research data collection using observation techniques and in-depth interviews. The results showed that students were able to build higher-order thinking skills by demonstrating cognitive activity focusing on the following processing classes: 63.7% of analysis skills, 23.9% of evaluation skills, and 12.4% of synthesis skills. These results represent that the activity of higher-order thinking skills stimulus process on heat and temperature concepts in learning. The process of this study could be functioned as an alternative strategy to encourage students to show the pattern of their higher-order thinking skills in the process of teaching and learning. This is the important findings in this study.

Keywords: heat and temperature concepts, higher-order thinking skills, analysis skills, evaluation skills, synthesis skills, cognitive activity

Full Text:



Boddy, N., Watson, K., & Aubusson, P. (2003). A trial of the five Es: A referent model for constructivist teaching and learning. Research in Science Education, 33, 27–42, 2003.

Bramwell-Lalor S. and Rainford M., (2014), The Effects of Using Concept Mapping for Improving Advanced Level Biology Students’ Lower- and Higher-Order Cognitive Skills, Int. J. Sci. Educ., 36(5), 839–864.

Burrows N. L. and Mooring S. R., (2015), Using concept mapping to uncover students’ knowledge structures of chemical bonding concepts, Chem. Educ. Res. Pract., 16, 53–66.

Cobb, P. (1994). Constructivism in mathematics and science education. Educational Researcher, 23, 4. de Bono, E. (1976). Teaching thinking. London: Penguin.

Cooper M. M., Grove N., Underwood S. M., and Klymkowsky M. W., (2010), Lost in Lewis structures: an investigation of student difficulties in developing representational competence, J. Chem. Educ., 87(8), 869–874.

Fernandez C., Holbrook J., Mamlok-Naaman R., and Coll R. K., (2013), How to teach science in emerging and developing environments, in Teaching chemistry – A study book, Sense Publishers, pp. 299–326.

Halpern, D. F. (1998). Teaching critical thinking for transfer across domains. American Psychologist, 53(9), 449–455.

Krathwohl D. R., (2002), A revision of Bloom’s taxonomy: an overview, Theor. Pract., 41(4), 212–218.

Kurniati, Dian. 2016. Kemampuan Berpikir Tingkat Tinggi Siswa SMP Di Kabupaten Jember Dalam Menyelesaikan Soal Berstandar PISA. Penelitian dan Evaluasi Pendidikan 20(2), 142-155.

Leou, M., Abder, P., Riordan, M., & Zoller, U. (2006). ‘Using HOCS-centered learning’ as a pathway to promote science teachers’ metacognitive development. Research in Science Education, 36(1–2), 69–84.

Lopez E. J., Shavelson R. J., Nandagopal K., Szu E. and Penn J., (2014), Ethnically diverse students’ knowledge structures in first-semester organic chemistry, J. Res. Sci. Teach., 51(6), 741–758.

Lopez E., Kim J., Nandagopal K., Cardin N., Shavelson R. J. and Penn J. H., (2011), Validating the use of concept-mapping as a diagnostic assessment tool in organic chemistry: implications for teaching, Chem. Educ. Res. Pract., 12(2), 133–141.

National Research Council (NRC) (1996). National Science Education Standards-NSES. Washington, DC: National Academy.

Norris S. P. and Phillips L. M., (2012), Reading science: how a naive view of reading hinders so much else, in Metacognition in Science Education, Springer: Netherlands, pp. 37–56.

Novak J. D., (2010), Learning, Creating, and Using Knowledge: Concept maps as facilitative tools in schools and corporations, J. E-Learn. Knowl. Soc., 6, 21–30.

Phang F. A., Abu M. S., Ali M. B., and Salleh S., (2012), Faktor penyumbang kepada kemerosostan pelajar dalam aliran sains: Satu analisis sorotan tesis. In eprints utm (p. 17), retrieved from

Popova-Gonci V. and Lamb M. C., (2012), Assessment of Wilks, S. (1995). Critical and creative thinking: Strategies for classroom inquiry. Armidale, NSW: Eleanor Curtain.

Potts B 1994 Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation Journal 4 1-3

Resnick, L. (1987). Education and learning to think. Washington, DC: National Academy.

Seng G. H., (2007), The Effects Of Think-Aloud In A Collaborative Environment To Improve Comprehension Of L2 Texts, Reading Matrix: An International Online Journal, 7(2), 2–45.

Ten Dam, G., & Volman, M. (2004). Critical thinking as a citizenship competence: teaching strategies. Learning and Instruction, 14(4), 359–379.

Yin R. K., (2009), Case study research, design and methods, 4th eds, Los Angeles: Sage.

Zohar, A., & Dori, Y. J. (2003). Higher-order thinking skills and low achieving students: Are they mutually exclusive? Journal of the Learning Sciences, 12(2), 145–183.

Zoller U., (1993), Are lecture and learning compatible? Maybe for LOCS: Unlikely for HOCS, J. Chem. Educ., 70(3), 195.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2019 Jurnal Pembelajaran Fisika

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

  Lisensi Creative Commons
The Copyright is reserved to The Journal of Physics Learning (Jurnal Pembelajaran Fisika) that is licensed under a Lisensi Creative Commons Atribusi-NonKomersial-BerbagiSerupa 4.0 Internasional.