Ratna Juwitasari, Patuan Raja, Budi Kadaryanto



Abstract: The objectives of this research were to investigate how simple present tense was used by students in descriptive text writing and to identify the common error made by students’ in using simple present tense in their descriptive text based on Surface Strategy Taxonomy. This research was designed in the form of qualitative research, especially in descriptive method. This research was conducted at MAN 1 (Model) Bandar Lampung.

The subject of this research was the students of class XI.A.1 which consisted of 33 students. In analyzing the data, the researcher collected the data from the students, determined whether simple present tense was used in well-formed or error by the students, identified the grammatical errors made by the students, classified the errors of using simple present tense in students’ descriptive text to find out the frequency of errors, displayed the data, calculated the data taken, and made the percentage in each category.


The result shows that the students used more correct simple present tense than errors. The correct use of simple present tense was 73.81%, whereas the error in using simple present tense was 26.19%. Furthermore, the highest frequency of errors made by the students based on surface strategy taxonomy was omission error with 56 items (50.90%).The teachers are suggested to give much practice about the use of ending -s or –es in simple present tense in order to minimize the omission errors. Moreover, for other researchers, they can provide some techniques to increase students’ mastery of simple present tense.


Key words: Grammatical Error, Simple Present Tense, Descriptive text



Full Text:




Azar, Betty Schrampfer. 1989. Understanding and Using English Grammar.

New Jersey: Prentice Hall Regents.

Brown, H. Douglas. 2001. Principles of Language Learning and Teaching.

New Jersey: Prentice Hall Ine.

Burton, Robert Noel. 1986. Analyzing Sentences. London: Addison Wesely


Cahyono, Djauhari. 1997. Master on English Grammar. Surabaya: Indah.

Corder, S. P. 1976. Introducing Applied Linguistics. Middlesex: Penguin.

Derewianka, Beverly. 1992. Exploring How Texts Work. New South Wales:

Primary English Teaching Association.

Dewan Penyunting Penerbit Universitas Lampung. 2008. PedomanPenulisan

KaryaIlmiah. Bandar Lampung: Universitas Lampung.

Donald, Robert. 1978. Writing Clear Paragraphs. New Jersey: Practice-Hall, Inc.

Dulay, H., Burt, M. and Krashen, S. D. 1982. Language Two.New York: Oxford

University Press.

Finocchiaro, M. 1989. The Functional-Notional Approaches from Theory to Practice.New York: Oxford University Press.

Greenbaum, Norman. 1993. Advance Grammar in Use. Jakarta: Erlangga.

Grace, Eudia and Sudarwati. 2002. Look Ahead (An English Course) for Senior High School Students Year XI. Jakarta: Erlangga.

Hammer, Jeremy. 2004. How to Teach Writing. London: Longman.

Harris, David P. 1974. Testing English as A Second Language. New York: Tata

Mc. GrawHill Publisher Co. Ltd.

Heaton, J. B. 1990. Language Testing Modern English Publications.London:


Hendrickson, James M. 1982. Error Analysis and Error Correction in Language

Teaching.Singapore: Seamoe Regional Language Centre.

Hewings, Martin. 1999. Advanced Grammar in Use (A self-study reference and practice book for advanced learners of English). Jakarta: Erlangga.

Hornby, A. S. 1986. Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English. Oxford University Pers.

Indrati, Ida Ayu. 1998. An Analysis of Tenses Errors in Students’ Writing “Case Study” at Class II.5 of SMUN 2 Bandarlampung. Bandarlampung: Script (Unpublished) Lampung University.

Krashen, S. 1988. The Input Hypothesis: Issues and Implications. London: Longman.

Krohn, Robert. 2002. English Sentence Structure. Jakarta: BinarupaAksara.

Laru, R. 2010. Concept of Grammar.Jakarta: Yudhistira.

Linderman, E. 1983. What is Writing in A Rhetoric for Writing Teachers. London: The University of Chicago Press.

Masito, Emmi Riasari. 2004. The Students’ Descriptive Writing Ability at the First Grade of SMU AL-Kautsar Bandar Lampung.Bandarlampung: Script (Unpublished) Lampung University.

Master, Peter. 2004. English Grammar and Technical Writing. Washington: Office of English Language Program.

McKay, S. 1987. Teaching Grammar: From Function and Technique. Hemel Hempstead: Prentice Hall.

Murcia, M., and Hilles S. 1995. Techniques and Resources in Teaching Grammar.New York: University Press.

Muhammad. 2009. The “s” of Third Person Singular in the Simple Present Tense:

From Rote Learning to Classroom Efficient Practice the Case of First Year Students .Solo: Script (Unpublished).

Nichols, Lorrain. 1993. Grammar Step By Step. Jakarta: BinarupaAksara.

Prayogo, Irawan. 2012. An Analysis of the Students’ Proficiency in Descriptive Paragraph Writing at the Second Grade of SMA Tri SuksesNatarLampung Selatan.Bandarlampung: Script (Unpublished) Lampung University.

Reid, M. Joy. 1994. The Process of Paragraph Writing. New Jersey: Practice

Hall, Inc.

Sari, Pusvita. 2009. Improving Students’ Achievement in Learning Simple Present

Tense through Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) at the First Year

of SMPN 5 Bandar Lampung. Bandarlampung: Script (Unpublished)

Lampung University.

Setiyadi, A. G. Bambang. 2006. MetodePenelitianUntukPengajaranBahasa

Asing: PendekatanKualitatifdanKuatitatif. Yogyakarta: Penerbit Graha


Setiyadi, A. G. Bambang.2003. Teaching English as a Foreign Language. Yogyakarta: PenerbitGrahaIlmu.

Slamet and Tim Edukatif HTS. 2008. ModulBahasaInggris. Surakarta: CV Hayati Tumbuh Subur.

Smalley, L., Regina, and Ruetten, Mary, K.1986. Refining Composition Skills.

New York: Macmillan Publishing Company.

Suhesti, Ganis. 2012. Teaching Descriptive Text through Cooperative Learning by Using Roundtable technique at the First Year of SMA XaveriusPringsewu.Bandarlampung: Script (Unpublished) Lampung University.

Sulaiman. 1970. Practical English Grammar. Surabaya: Indah Press.

Susanto, Andreas. 1997. A Comparative Study between Spoting the Difference

Game and Dialogue towards Students’ Achievement in Present Perfect Tense Script. Bandar Lampung: Script (Unpublished).

Tarigan, Henry Guntur. 1988. PengajaranPemerolehanBahasa. Departmen

PendidikandanKebudayaan. Jakarta: Direktorat Jendral Pendidikan

Tinggi, P2LPTK.

Thomson, A. J. and Martinent A. V. 1992. Fundamental of English Grammar. New York: Prentice Hall.

Trask, R. L. 1999. Key Concepts in Language and Linguistics. New York:


Veit, Allsop. 1986. Making Sense of English Grammar. Jakarta: Binarupa Aksara


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c)