Think-Aloud Protocol (TAP) Analysis: An Investigation of Writing Assessment Tool for High School Teachers

Andik Nur Wijaya, Suparno Suparno, Slamet Supriyadi

Abstract


Teachers experience particular difficulties in learners’ writing activities for academic purposes. Teachers should concern more about this phenomenon. One of the strategies to explore this fact is by determining an assessment procedure to encompass the writing direction during the learners’ writing process. Understanding learners’ difficulties and defining direction to solve those difficulties are significant for teachers to develop writing direction. This research applied a case study method to investigate the directional concern that Indonesian high school teachers’ arranged derived from a think-aloud protocol (TAP) assessment, which the researcher suggested. The researcher interviewed three Senior High School teachers about the argumentative writing performance of their three learners by applying the TAPAssessment. After the TAPassessment, the teachers’ directional concerns contained more elements related to the process of writing, even though they still ignored several significant processes. The inference result was that writing teachers’ professional development gave directional plans so that teachers were facilitated to work on writing assessment data thoroughly for the whole organization aspects.


Full Text:

PDF PDF PDF

References


Andrade, H., Du, Y., & Wang, X. (2008). Putting rubrics to the test: The effect of a model, criteria generation, and rubric-referenced self-assessment on elementary school students’ writing. Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice, 27(2), 3–13.

Andrade, H. L., Wang, X., Du, Y., & Akawi, R. L. (2009). Rubric-referenced self-assessment and self-efficacy for writing. Journal of Educational Research, 102(4), 287–302.

Beck, S., et al.. (2015). Beyond the Rubric: Think-Alouds As A Diagnostic Assessment Tool For High School Writing Teachers. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 58 (8), 670 – 681. doi:10.1002/jaal.423.

Beck, S., et al. (2018). From assessing to teaching writing: What teachers prioritize. Assessing Writing, 37(2018), 68-77. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asw.2018.03.003.

Beck, S., Llosa, L., & Fredrick, T. (2013). The challenges of writing exposition: Lessons from a study of ELL and non- ELL high school students. Reading and Writing Quarterly, 29 (4), 358 – 380.

Black, P., & Wiliam, D. (1998). Inside the black box: Raising standards through classroom assessment. Phi Delta Kappan, 80(2), 139–148.

Callahan, S., & Spalding, E. (2006). Can high-stakes writing assessment support high-quality professional development? The Educational Forum, 70(4), 337–350.

De La Paz, S., & Graham, S. (2002). Explicitly teaching strategies, skills, and knowledge: Writing instruction in middle school classrooms. Journal of Educational Psychology, 94,

– 698. doi: 10.1037//0022- 0663.94.4.687.

Flower, L., & Hayes, J. (1981). A Cognitive process theory of writing. College Composition and Communication, 32 (4), 365 – 387. doi: 10.2307/356600.

Graham, S., & Perin, D. (2007). Writing next: Effective strategies to improve writing of adolescents in middle and high schools—A report to Carnegie Corporation of New York. Washington, DC: Alliance for Excellent Education.

Parr, J., & Timperley, H. (2010). Feedback to writing, assessment for teaching and learning and student progress. Assessing Writing, 15, 68–85.

Parr, J. M., Glasswell, K., & Aikman, M. (2007). Supporting teacher learning and informed practice in writing through assessment tools for teaching and learning. Asia-Pacific Journal of Teacher Education, 35(1), 69–87.

Ruiz-Primo, M. A. (2011). Informal formative assessment: The role of instructional dialogues in assessing students’ learning. Studies in Educational Evaluation, 37(1), 15–24.

Shepard, L. (2005). Formative assessment: Caveat emptor. Paper presented at the ETS Invitational Conference, Formative Assessment: Shaping the future of teaching and learning.

Van Gelderen, A. (1997). Elementary students’ skills in revising: Integrating quantitative and qualitative analysis. Written Communication, 14(3), 360–397.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

View My Stats

Creative Commons License
The copyright is reserved to The AKSARA: Jurnal Bahasa dan Sastra that is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.