Implicit Teaching Strategies on Grammar Instruction: Students’ Prevailing Stance

Rizki Indra Guci, Nur Arifah Drajati

Abstract


Grammar teaching in foreign language education has been maintained by most theories as one thing playing a significant role in facilitating the process of learning to read, write, speak, and understand a foreign language. However, scholars label that role as controversial both in the research of second language acquisition (SLA) and language pedagogy. Thus, such condition results in a potential cause of confusion to teachers and students, then leads the researchers to a thoughtful theoretical debate on the topic of the way grammar should be taught: explicitly or implicitly. The aim of the present case study was to gain an insight into the prevailing stance of Indonesian English students on grammar teaching enrolled in a senior high school. To this end, a questionnaire, as well as interview sessions, were developed and validated based on one construct pair from SLA literature: explicit versus implicit instruction. The findings, in general, showed that the students were found to prefer implicit over explicit instruction. Nonetheless, the stance somewhat changed depending on the proficiency level of students. As an implication, this study supported Indonesian English students to maintain their stance on implicit teaching strategies on grammar instruction, regarding the help they can get in the process of natural acquisition of language.

Keywords: Case Study, Foreign Language Teaching, Grammar Instruction, Implicit Teaching, Students’ Prevailing Stance


Full Text:

PDF PDF

References


Borg, S. (1999a). Studying teacher cognition in second language grammar teaching. System, 27, 19–31.

Brown, R. (1979). REFERENCE Brown, R. (1973). A first language: The early stages. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. 135–137.

Celce-Marcia, M. (2001). Teaching English as a second or foreign language. Boston, MA: Heinel & Heinel.

Degirmenci, N., & Yavuz, F. (2015). Pre-service Teachers’ Attitudes Towards Grammar Teaching, 191, 1828–1832. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.04.353

DeKeyser, R. (1995). Learning second language grammar rules: An experiment with a miniature linguistic system. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 17, 379–410.

Ellis, N. (2002). Frequency effects in language processing: A review with implications for theories of implicit and explicit language acquisition. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 24, 297–339.

Ellis, N. C., & Bogart, P. (2007, October 1–3). Speech in language technology in education: The perspective from SLA research and practice. In Proceedings of Sla TE workshop on Speech and Language Technology in Education ISCA Tutorial and Research Workshop, Famington, PA.

Ellis, R. (2006). The Structural Syllabus and Second Language Acquisition. TESOL Quarterly, 27(1), 91. https://doi.org/10.2307/3586953

Ellis, R. (1997). SLA research and language teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Ellis, R. (2008). The study of second language acquisition. 2nd edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Ellis, R., & Roever, C. (2018). The measurement of implicit and explicit knowledge. The Language Learning Journal, 0(0), 1–16. https://doi.org/10.1080/09571736.2018.1504229

Ellis, Rod. (2005). Measuring implicit and explicit knowledge of a second language: A psychometric study. SSLA 27. 141–172.

Ellis, Rod. (2009). Implicit and explicit learning, knowledge, and instruction. In Rod Ellis, Shawn Loewen, Catherine Elder, Rosemary Erlam, Jenefer Philp, & Hayo Reinders (eds.), Implicit and explicit knowledge in second language learning, testing, and teaching, 3–26. Buffalo, NY: Multilingual Matters.

Fujino, H. (2019). L2 learners’ perceptions of grammar: the case of JFL learners in the UK. Language Learning Journal, 0(0), 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1080/09571736.2019.1578399

Gass, S. (2012). Incidental Vocabulary Learning. Encyclopedia of the Sciences of Learning, 1519–1519. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-1428-6_2213

Gheisari, N., & Yousofi, N. (2016). Iranian pre-university student’s retention of collocations: Implicit exposure or explicit instruction. Cogent Education, 3(1), 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1080/2331186X.2016.1184826

Graus, J., & Coppen, P. (2015). Defining grammatical difficulty: a student teacher perspective. Language Awareness, 37–41. https://doi.org/10.1080/09658416.2014.994639

Graus, J., & Coppen, P.-A. (2016). Student teacher beliefs on grammar instruction. Language Teaching Research, 20(5), 571–599. https://doi.org/10.1177/1362168815603237

Housen, A., & Pierrard, M. (2005). Investigating instructed second language acquisition. In: A. Housen, & M. Pierrard (Eds.), Investigations in instructed second language acquisition (pp. 1–30). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Hunt, A., & Beglar, D. (2005). A framework for developing EFL reading vocabulary. Reading in a Foreign Language, 17, 23–59.

Krashen, Stephen. (n.d.). Principles and Practice in Second Language Acquisition.

Krashen, S. D. (1981). Second language acquisition and second language learning. Oxford: Pergamon Press.

Krashen, Stephen. (1985). The Input Hypothesis. New York: Longman.

Krashen, Stephen & Tracy Terrell. (1983). The Natural Approach. Hayward, CA: Alemany.

Krashen, S. D. (1994). The input hypothesis and its rivals. In N. C. Ellis (Ed.), Implicit and explicit learning of languages (pp. 45–78). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Larsen-freeman, D. (2015). Research into practice : Grammar learning and teaching. (March), 263–280. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0261444814000408

Lichtman, K. (2013). Developmental Comparisons of Implicit and Explicit Language Learning. (October 2014), 37–41. https://doi.org/10.1080/10489223.2013.766740

McLaughlin, Barry. (1978). “The Monitor Model: Some Methodological Considerations.” Language Learning 28: 309-32.

Morgan-Short, Kara. (2007). A neurolinguistic investigation of late-learned second language knowledge: the effects of implicit and explicit conditions. Washington, DC: Georgetown University dissertation.

Nagy, W. E., & Herman, P. A. (1987). Breadth and depth of vocabulary knowledge: Implications for acquisition and instruction. In M. G. McKeown & M. E. Curtis (Eds.), The nature of vocabulary acquisition (pp. 19–35). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Norris, John & Lourdes Ortega. (2001). Does type of instruction make a difference? Substantive findings from a metaanalytic review. Language Learning, 51. 157–213.

Omaggio, Alice. (1984). Teaching for Proficiency, the Organizing Principle. Lincolnwood, IL: National Textbook.

Öztina, S. (2009). Effects of input flood and negative evidence on learning of make/do collocations: A study with seventh grade Turkish EFL students (A dissertation submitted to the graduate school and research in the fulfillment of the requirements for the degree master of arts). Anadolu University Institute of Educational Sciences, Eskişehir.

Rivers, Wilga. (1981). Teaching Foreign Language Skills. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press.

Loewen, S., & Sato, M. (2018). Instructed Second Language Acquisition and English Language Teaching: Theory, Research, and Pedagogy. Switzerland: Springer Nature Switzerland.

Schmidt, R. (1990). The role of consciousness in second language learning. Applied Linguistics, 11, 129–158. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/applin/11.2.129

Schmitt, N., & Zimmerman, C. B. (2002). Derivative word forms: What do learners know? TESOL Quarterly, 36, 145–171. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3588328

Scott, V. M. (1989). An Empirical Study of Explicit Vs. Implicit Teaching Strategies in Foreign Language Instruction. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, 73(1), 110

Smith, M. (1993). Input enhancement in instructed SLA. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 15, 165–179. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0272263100011943

Spada, N., & Tomita, Y. (2010). Interactions between Type of Instruction and Type of Language Feature: A Meta-Analysis. Language Learning, 60(2), 263–308. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9922.2010.00562.x

Tammenga-Helmantel, M., Arends, E., & Canrinus, E. T. (2014). The effectiveness of deductive, inductive, implicit and incidental grammatical instruction in second language classrooms. System, 45(1), 198–210. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2014.06.003

Taylor, D. B., Mraz, M., Nichols, W. D., Rickelman, R. J., & Wood, K. D. (2009). Using explicit instruction to promote vocabulary learning for struggling readers. Reading and Writing Quarterly, 25(2–3), 205–220. https://doi.org/10.1080/10573560802683663


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

View My Stats

Creative Commons License
The copyright is reserved to The AKSARA: Jurnal Bahasa dan Sastra that is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.